Suggested length: 2-3 class periods (45-55 minutes each)
Device accessibility: 1 device per 1-2 students
Contenido del artículo:
- At a glance
- Learning objective(s)
- Prior knowledge
- Teacher preparation
- Provided materials
- Lesson Plan
- Related Kialo discussion
- Downloadable files
At a glance
In this lesson, students will explore a fully developed Kialo discussion that considers the weighty question, “is war a necessary evil?” Working through such diverse perspectives as history, philosophy, politics, economics, and human evolution, students will grapple with this discussion and then begin to reexamine the core question for themselves.
To prompt this reflection, students will complete an art project (e.g. a song, poem, video, or piece of visual art) that expresses three reasons why war is or is not a necessary evil
In this lesson, students will:
- Explore a cross-disciplinary discussion.
- Evaluate opposing perspectives on a controversial issue.
- Form and defend a position based upon their personal reasoning.
Students should have at least a basic concept of international relations, economics, evolution, and the historical events of European colonialism and World War II.
- There is no need to clone this discussion. Students can explore the discussion hosted on the Kialo_Edu account by clicking this link.
- If you would like to invite students to the discussion using the "Share" button or the Teams feature, create 1 clone of the discussion for yourself.
- When inviting students to the discussion, give them Viewer permissions
The Kialo discussion “Is War a Necessary Evil?” This consists of:
- A brief background on the alleged drawbacks and merits of war.
- A list of key vocabulary for understanding the Kialo discussion.
- A fully developed Kialo discussion for students to explore. The discussion covers arguments for and against the necessity of war.
- Lesson plan for educators (.docx / .pdf).
- Instructions for students (.docx / .pdf).
- Suggested rubric for grading an art project (.docx / .pdf).
- Click here to download all additional materials (.zip).
- Opener (5-10 minutes)
- Part A: Exploring the Kialo discussion (focus of 1 class period)
- Part B: Project presentations (focus of 1-2 class periods)
- Optional closer (2 minutes)
Students will use any medium (e.g. a song, poem, video, or piece of visual art) to create an art project that expresses their opinion on the question, “Is War a Necessary Evil?” Art projects should express at least three reasons for the student’s opinion.
Students can be asked to explore the Kialo discussion at home, before coming to class. In this case, you can also discuss students’ impressions of the discussion during the lesson Opener.
Students can be challenged to express the opposite viewpoint to their personal beliefs as they complete their projects.
Opener (5-10 minutes)
Present two quotations to the class:
“I am sick and tired of war. Its glory is all moonshine. It is only those who have neither fired a shot nor heard the shrieks and groans of the wounded who cry aloud for blood, for vengeance, for desolation. War is hell.” (U.S. General William Tecumseh Sherman, 1880)
- “Perpetual peace is a dream, and it is not even a beautiful dream. War is an element in the order of the world ordained by God. In it the noblest virtues of mankind are developed; courage and the abnegation of self, faithfulness to duty, and a spirit of sacrifice: the soldier gives his life. Without war the world would stagnate, and lose itself in materialism.” (Prussian General Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, 1880)
- “I am sick and tired of war. Its glory is all moonshine. It is only those who have neither fired a shot nor heard the shrieks and groans of the wounded who cry aloud for blood, for vengeance, for desolation. War is hell.” (U.S. General William Tecumseh Sherman, 1880)
Ask students to speak with a partner about which of these quotations the students agree with more. Then conduct a brief class discussion on students’ thoughts.
- Use the discussion as a segue to introducing the lesson topic: Is War a Necessary Evil?
Part A: Exploring the Kialo discussion (focus of 1 class period)
Go over the entire student instructions document and the suggested rubric.
- Direct students to log into Kialo Edu and begin exploring the discussion, taking notes of any important points or ideas that can be used for the art project.
- When students are finished exploring the Kialo discussion, direct them to begin working on their art projects.
Clip 1: Interview with Jack Campbell, Irish soldier fighting for the British Empire (clip starts at 9:46, duration 1m 37s)
Clip 2: Interview with Stephan Westman, soldier for the German Empire (clip starts at 1:18, duration 3m 47s)
NOTE: The portion of the interview before the start of the clip is graphic, as it describes hand-to-hand violence. Share this context with students, so they can understand Westman’s commentary.
Part B: Project presentations (focus of 1-2 class periods)
Students present their art projects to the whole class, explaining how their projects express at least three reasons why war is or is not a necessary evil.
Optional closer (2 minutes)
Share the following quote from American author Ernest Hemingway, who served as an ambulance driver in World War I and worked as a war correspondent in the Spanish Civil War:
“Never think that war, no matter how necessary, nor how justified, is not a crime.”
- Invite students to consider the question, “Is it possible for something to be both morally wrong and morally necessary at the same time, or are these concepts always exclusive?”